President Trump, among other world leaders, have recently been cutting corporate taxes. In our new paper ”Cost behavior around corporate tax rate cuts” (with Jesper Haga & Henrik Höglund, all from Hanken School of Economics), we find that companies exhibit income-decreasing SG&A behavior before tax rate cuts which quickly reverses afterwards. Read the full paper here.
As an english-swedish pun, we affiliate dachshunds with "tax dogs" to illustrate tax cuts.
The more simple language summary is that we have examined how firms have responded to a number of recent national corporate tax rate cuts (e.g. a cut from 24.5% to 20.0% in Finland 2014). We have looked at financial statement data of 70,000 observations (firm-years) from 33 OECD member countries and found that firms in general use the window of opportunity that a tax change generates by engaging in a form of tax planning via selling, general, and administrative costs. We also find that certain characteristics are associated with this behavior. All in all, we inform people who use financial statements and other firm disclosure by providing an explanation for a specific form of cost behavior. Furthermore, we contribute to the discussion on corporate taxation by highlighting that firms seem to cut their tax payments in response to country-level cuts in corporate taxes, which are primarily made to make countries more attractive for business. This translates into large losses in tax revenues for the governments. Future research could examine what happens when the dachshunds run out of hair…
Disclaimer: No “tax dogs” (dachshunds) were harmed in the making of this paper.
While over the past decades we have been witnessing the increase of services’ outsourcing and offshoring, moving standardised tasks abroad to be delivered remotely, in the past few years we have noticed a new trend. Robotizing repetitive, high volume and low variety tasks is the next step in automation. This includes processing of financial data, invoices, purchasing documents, all which are highly standardised. RPA allows 24/7 service, shorter cycle time, low error rate and is linking both established and emerging technologies, such as optical character recognition (OCR) and voice recognition (VR), natural language processing (NLP) and artificial intelligence (AI). Increasing popularity of RPA will enable further costs reduction, but it may also change the global outsourcing market, removing the need for large pool of low-cost labour, which is supplied by current outsourcing destinations, this will change the global service delivery landscape.
Students at Hanken were able to learn about RPA from Dr. Kedziora, guest speaker at 38011 Operations Management course run by Dr. Piotrowicz.
Damian Kedziora is a Doctor of Industrial Engineering and Management from Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland. He has been working for top global corporations of banking and ICT industry specialising in efficient service migrations to offshore locations. Currently works as Solution Consultant at Intelligent Automation by NORIAN, one of the leading Nordic providers of Robotic Process Automation: https://www.iabynorian.com/. He is also conducting academic research and publishing on the topic.
First of all, no culture owns any of its symbolism. Dreadlocks have been used by ancient Minoans, Egyptians, Aztecs as well as Slavic pagans and the Zaporozhian Cossack. Even in a religious context they have been worn by Santerians, Rastafarians and Tibetan Buddhists alike. No-one can claim the hairstyle as their own cultural property.
First of all, no culture owns any of its symbolism. Dreadlocks have been used by ancient Minoans, Egyptians, Aztecs as well as Slavic pagans and the Zaporozhian Cossacks. Even in a religious context they have been worn by Santerians, Rastafarians and Tibetan Buddhists alike. No-one can claim the hairstyle as their own cultural property.
Har revisorns kön ett samband med revisionsberättelsens typ?
Syftet med Emma Haapalas avhandling var att undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan revisorns kön och revisionsutlåtandet.
Resultaten tyder på att kvinnliga revisorer ger med en större sannolikhet ett modifierat revisionsutlåtande. Resultaten är i linje med tidigare studier (Chin & Chi, 2008; Hardies, 2011; Hardies et al., 2012; Ittonen & Peni, 2012; Ittonen et al., 2013; Hardies et al., 2016).
Tilläggsanalyserna visar ytterligare att könsskilnader finns endast då samplet består av GR revisorer eller revisorer som arbetar i non-Big 4 bolag. I dessa fall är kvinnliga revisorer mer sannolika att modifiera sitt revisionsuttalande än manliga kolleger. Bland CGR och Big 4 revisorer finns inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader.
Suomen tilintarkastajat tilldelade Haapala en stipendie från Ewvin Sederholms Fond för avhandlingen och publicerade en sammanfattning på finska.
Tillsammans med Henrik Höglund och Dennis Sundvik gjorde vi en utredning om frivillig revision i Finland. Syftet var att undersöka hur stor andel av bolagen som är befriade från revisionsskyldigheten väljer en revisor frivilligt.
Data och urval
Vår data omfattade alla aktiva aktiebolag som har lämnat in 6B-formulären till skattemyndigheterna (totalt ca. 170.000 bolag år 2014). Revisionslagen befriar småbolag från revisionsskyldigheten:
Revisionslag 2.2§ 2. mom.
Om inte något annat föreskrivs i någon annan lag behöver en revisor inte väljas i en sammanslutning där högst en av följande förutsättningar har uppfyllts såväl under den avslutade räkenskapsperioden som under den omedelbart föregående perioden:
1) balansomslutningen överstiger 100 000 euro,
2) omsättningen eller motsvarande avkastning överstiger 200 000 euro, eller
3) antalet anställda överstiger i medeltal tre.
Eftersom antal anställda inte rapporteras till handelsregistret, använde vi balansomslutningen och omsättningen från de två sista åren för att fastställa befriade bolag. På så sätt kunde vi försäkra att ett högre antal anställda inte gjorde ett bolag revisionsskyldig. Sållningen resulterade i att ca. 42.500 bolag var befriade från revisionsskyldigheten i sampel år 2014 (41.000 och 42.000 för åren 2012 och 2013).
Frivillig revision i befriade bolag
Undersökningen visade att andelen bolag som frivilligt låter utföra revision hade minskat från 32% (2012) till 25% (2014), se bild 2 i rapporten (s. 4: ”Kuva 2”)
Skillnaderna mellan landskap var betydliga. I Österbotten valdes det revisorer frivilligt klart minst (ca. 20%), medan ca. 40% av bolag i Kajanaland och Södra Savolax valde en revisor frivilligt, se bild 3 i rapporten (s. 5: ”Kuva 3”).
Meeting Etiquette is no rocket science but still seems to get neglected in many work communities. In my opinion, by keeping the following things in mind, meetings will be one notch more efficient and meaningful to attend.
There are probably as many ways of structuring a work day as there are people. As long as the work gets done, the methods are of secondary importance. However, some tips might be helpful in order to use the available time as efficient as possible. Below I list procedures and tricks that have proven helpful to me.
When You Come To Work
Take time to sit down and plan your day.
Which things are crucial today (biggest risks if they don’t get done now)?
Which things are urgent (including less important ones)?
Are there things that need to happen a specific time of the day (like meetings or phone calls)?
Put the time plan on paper and fill up with some "in case there would be extra time" tasks and projects.
When You Start Working
Go through your daily to do list task for task. Only concentrate on one thing at a time. In case you notice that something takes longer than planned, rearrange your schedule in good time and/or ask a colleague to help you. Don’t be afraid to postpone non-important and non-urgent projects to another day.
Be careful with your email. Don’t keep it open / check it continuously during the work day. It can be a good idea to schedule email time once in the morning, once at lunch and once before leaving work. Make sure to start with the urgent and important ones and clearly separate "finished" and "not yet dealt with" emails. It is OK to leave unimportant emails to be answered another day. For these, try to create template answers (for example "Thank you for your email, please see the guidelines at our web pages www.creating-an-account.com") and send them all at once.
In order to communicate as efficient as possible with your colleagues, supervisors and external contacts, the following pieces of advice can come in handy.
Value your communication partner’s time. Don’t disturb when he/she is clearly occupied. Keep your message short
When possible, try to speak face to face or make a phone call. Written messages are easily misinterpreted or read fast and carelessly
In urgent matters, emails are to be avoided at all costs. The receiver of the message will not monitor their inbox 24/7. In a hurry, important details can also easily be forgotten or misunderstand. It is therefore important to immediately be able to ask questions and confirm actions to be taken
Never assume that your communication partner has got (or remember!) background information about your topic. Don’t either take their attitude or reaction for granted
In case you are not communicating with your own subordinates, don’t command people. You do not set the work priority list for your colleagues or partners. Make sure to always be polite, in all situations
When you are a supervisor and give instructions to your subordinates, make sure that your message, and possibly deadlines, are understood correctly. Employees cannot be held accountable for fulfilling unclear or ambiguous expectations
Don’t bother others with things that you could easily google or figure out yourself. In case you need advise for a problem, make sure to have some solution options of your own ready
Be sensitive to cultural differences and ready to adapt to yur commuication partner
When you arrange a meeting, make sure that you are prepared and don´t let your audience wait when you search in your notes or fetch forgotten documents
Don´t let your spoken message get lost in explanations, side tracks, repeats or distracting body language
Always look your communication partner(s) in the eyes and present your matter with confidence