Christian Grönroos

Hanken School of Economics

Dr. Christian Grönroos is Professor emeritus of Service and Relationship Marketing  at Hanken School of Economics Finland (Svenska handelshögskolan) since 2014. Between 1999 and 2014 he was professor of service and relationship marketing and prior to that between 1984 and 1999 Professor of international and industrial marketing at Hanken. He is the initator and past chair of the board of the research and knowledge centre CERS Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management of this business university. He is a Honorary Professor at Nankai University and Tianjin Normal University, P.R.China as well as at Oslo School of Management, Norway. Between 2002 and 2007 he served as Guest Professor of Service Management at Lund University (Campus Helsingborg), Sweden. He is also a past visiting professor of Arizona State University, USA and The University of Auckland, New Zealand, and visiting scholar at several academic institutions.

He is a pioneer and leading scholar developing modern service marketing and service logic as well as relationship marketing and customer relationship management, and one of the earliest proponents of the term service management to describe customer-centric or market-oriented management based on a service logic in service and manufacturing firms.  He is one of the fathers of the school of service marketing and management that internationally has been labelled The Nordic School of thought.

He is a CSL Distinguished Faculty at Center for Services Leadership, Arizona State University, USA and an International Fellow at Service Research Centre (Centrum för tjänsteforskning), University of Karlstad, Sweden. In Finland he is scholarly affiliated (docent) with Åbo Academy University, Helsinki University of Technology (now part of Aalto University) and University of Tampere. He is also a Honourary Member of the Italian Marketing Association and also a Guest Professor at Marketing Research Center of China.

He is a distinguished member of the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters (since 1986) and a former member of the board of the Society (2008-2013).

In 2013 he received the Professor E.J. Nyström's Prize, the most distinguished award for scholarly achievements by the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters.

Among his previous academic administrative positions are member and chair of the university council and member of the academic council of Hanken School of Economics Finland as well as chair of the department of marketing of the school.

Legends in Marketing

Christian Grönroos has been selected as a "Legend in Marketing" - the first one outside North America -, and his research work has been compiled and featured in eight volumes of the "Legends in Marketing" Series, edited by Dr. Jagdish Sheth (Series Editor) and published by the Sage Publications in 2013. Other marketing scholars featured as Legends include Richard Bagozzi, Paul Green, Shelby Hunt, Philip Kotler, V. Kumar, Naresh Malhotra, Kent Monroe, Jagdish Sheth, Yoram Wind, and Gerald Zaltman.

The objective of the Legend series is to ensure that the most prominent marketing scholar's legacy is widely disseminated to the next generation of marketing researchers, and to preserve this body of knowledge as a legacy in the field of marketing.

Christian Grönroos on marketing and service business logic

Click on the boxes below to view 1) videoclips covering a series of Principle of Service Management lectures 2) a videoclip about reinventing marketing through promise management, 3) a video including  a lecture on how to reinvent marketing, 4) an interview about the future of marketing. and 5) eight short videoclips on service management and marketing.

Principles of Service Management


Marketing as promise management: regaining customer management for marketing

Grönroos on reinventing marketing: Is marketing nothing but a big mistake? Or can it be reinvented?


He has published extensively in several languages on service marketing and management and relationship marketing issues as well as on contemporary views on marketing theory. His most recent books on the service and relationship perspective in business are Service Management and Marketing. Customer Management in Service Competition (John Wiley & Co, 2007;  3rd edition) and In Search of a New Logic for Marketing. Foundations of Contemporary Theory (John Wiley & Co, 2007). For a complete list of publications (from 2000 onwards), see the Publications section.

In two separate studies about the academic and societal impact of professors in business administration in Finland in 2007 Christian Grönroos came out as the professor with the highest impact.

In a citation index study from 1994 comparing Finnish scholars in business administration with those in sociology, political science and public law Christian Grönroos was found to the internationally by far most cited scholar in business administration and in terms of citations on the same level as the most prominent scholars in sociology and political science in Finland (the reference disciplines in the study). Quoting from the study, “In business administration Grönroos comes first, then no one, then no one, and then the rest”.

According to information from Emerald in 2007, his articles “From marketing mix to relationship marketing: Towards a paradigm shift in marketing” (Management Decision, lead article, 32, 2, 1994, 4-20) is the by far most downloaded ever of all articles published in any Emerald scientific journal.

His article "Adopting a service logic in manufacturing: conceptual foundation and metrics for mutual value creation" (Journal of Service Management, 21(5):564-590; together with Pekka Helle) was elected best article 2010.

His article "Service as business logic: implications for value creation and marketing (Journal of Service Management, 22(1):5-22; lead article together with Annika Ravald) was wlected best article 2011.

His article “The relationship marketing process: communication, interaction, dialogue, value” (Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 19, 2, 2004, 99-113) has annually been the most downloaded article among all articles published in the Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, an Emerald journal, and is the overall most downloaded article published in the journal. Moreover, it is the article with the highest immediate impact, meaning the article that has most downloads during the six months after the month of publication

In a study of the academic impact of scholars who had published in the A category Journal of Business Research in 2000 one of his articles (“Relationship Approach to Marketing in Service Contexts: The Marketing and Organizational Behavior Interface”, Journal of Business Research, 20, 1, 1990, 3-11) came out as the one with the highest impact.

His article "From marketing mix to relationship marketing: towards a paradigm shift in marketing" , Management Decision, 32, 2, 1994, 4-20 (lead article; Award for Literary Excellence, 1994) is still the most downloaded article of all articles published in an Emerald journal.

In 1999 he received the American Marketing Association’s Career Contributions To Services Discipline Award, as the first scholar ever from outside North America to receive this award.

In 2002 he was awarded the Pro Oeconomia Prize for best business book published in Finland.

In 2003 he was honoured with Emerald Literati Club’s Lifetime Achievement Award for contributions in the field of marketing.

In 2007 he received the JBIM Award for distinguished contribution to the business-to-business field.

In Scandinavia he has been awarded for his service management research: The Ahlsell Award for outstanding research into marketing and distribution, and the Erik Kempe Award for his textbooks on service management and marketing.

Between 1999 and 2008 he served as the chairman of the jury for the CERS Award for Excellence in Relationship Marketing and Management.

Between 2008  and 2011 he served a member of the jury of the Finnish Quality Award.

In addition to his academic career he frequently lectures on service management and marketing, and service business logic as well as customer relationship management and relationship marketing in university-level executive programmes as well as in in-house seminars in service and manufacturing firms in Europe, North America (USA), Latin America (Brazil), Asia (China and Thailand), Africa (South Africa) and Oceania (Australia and New Zealand).


Service marketing; relationship marketing; a service perspective on business; Ph.D and Master's thesis supervising; executive education in Hanken MBA, Hanken-SSE Executive Education and in-house programmes.

Research Interest

The service perspective on business and marketing from a management point of view (service logic); developing marketing based on a service logic: promise management and marketing; transforming manufacturing into service business

Selected publications

Publications 2000 onwards in all languages:

Scholarly articles

Consumer dominant value creation: a theoretical response to the recent call for a consumer logic in marketing (together with Thomas Boysen Anker, Luiz Moutinho and Leigh Sparks), European Journal of Marketing (forthcoming 2014)

Design for value co-creation: exploring synergies between Design for Service and Service Logic (together with Katarina Wetter- Edman, Daniela Sangiorgi, Bo Edvardsson, Stefan Holmlid and Tuuli Mattelmäki). Service Science, Vol. 6, No. 2, 2014 pp. 

Reverse use of customer data: implications for service-based business models (together with Hannu Saarijärvi and Hannu Kuusela). Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2014, pp. 529-537

Value-based sales process adaptation in business relationships (together with Paul Viio). Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 43, No. 6, 2014, pp. 1085-1095

Consumers' willingness to communicate in a second language: communicating in service settings (together with Jonas Holmqvist and Yves van Vaerenbergh). Management Decision, Vol. 52, No. 5, 2014, pp. 950-966

The service revolution and its marketing implications: service logic versus service-dominant logic (together with Johanna Gummerus). Managing Service Quality, Vol. 24, No. 3, 2014, pp. 206-229

The mental footprint of marketing in the boardroom (together with Maria Holmlund and Tore Strandvik). Journal of Service Management Vol. 25, No. 2, 2014 pp. 241-252

The hybrid consumer: exploring hybrid consumption behaviour (together with Hanna Ehrnrooth). Managing Decision, Vol. 51, No. 9, 2013, 1793-1820

Critical service logic: making sense of value creation and co-creation (together with Päivi Voima). Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 41, No. 2, 2013, pp. 133-150

Conceptualising value co-creation: a journey to the 1970s and back to the future. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 28, No. 13-14, 2012, pp. 1520-1534

How does language matter for services? Challenges and propositions for service research (together with Jonas Holmqvist). Journal of Service Research, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2012, pp. 430-442

The emergence of the new service marketing: Nordic School perspectives (together with Evert Gummesson). Journal of Service Management, Vol. 23, No. 4, 2012, pp. 479-497

Return on relationships: conceptual foundation and measurement of mutual value gains from relational business engagements (together with Pekka Helle), Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2012 , pp. 344-359

Value Co-creation in Service Logic. A Critical Analysis. Marketing Theory, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2011, pp. 279-301

A service perspective in business relationships: The value creation and marketing interface. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2011, pp. 240-247

Service as business logic: implications for value creation and marketing (together with Annika Ravald). Journal of Service Management, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2011, pp. 5-22 (Best Article Award 2011)

Blir företag mera marknadsorienterade i tider av recession? (Do firms become more market oriented during economic downturns?) (tillsammans med Thomas Degenhardt). In Swedish. Ekonomiska Samfundets Tidskrift, 3/2010, pp. 15-25

Adopting a service logic in manufacturing. Conceptual foundation and metrics for mutual value creation (together with Pekka Helle). Journal of Service Management, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2010, pp. 564-590 (Best Article Award 2010)

Rethinking Marketing Communication: From Integrated Marketing Communication to Relationship Communication (together with Åke Finne). Journal of Marketing Communication, Vol. 15, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 179-195

Promise Management: Regaining Customer Management for Marketing. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 24, No. 5/6, 2009, pp. 351-359

Service Logic Revisited: Who Creates Value? And Who Co-creates? European Business Review, Vol. 20, No. 4, 2008, pp. 298-314

Wei Ying Xiao Li Lun Fa Zhan Xun Zhao Xin De Lu Biao (On definition of marketing: finding a new roadmap for marketing). Journal of Tianjin University of Commerce, Vol. 28, No. 1, 2008, pp. 56-61

Love at First Sight or a Long-Term Affair? Different Relationship levels as Predictors of Customer Commitment (together with Maria Sääksjärvi, Katarina Hellén and Johanna Gummerus). Journal of Relationship Marketing, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2007, pp. 45-61

Är alla företag tjänsteföretag? Tjänsteperspektiv på kunders värdeskapande och i företags affärslogik. (Are all firms service firms? Service perspective on customers’ value creatin and firms’ business logic). In Swedish. Ekonomiska Samfundets Tidskrift (The Journal of the Economic Society of Finland), 3/2007, p. 113-122

Gamla och nya metaforer för företags marknadsföring – från kock till scout. (Old and new metaphors in marketing – from cook to scout). In Swedish. SPHINX Finska Vetenskaps-societetens årsbok (annual publication of the Finnish Society of Science and Letters) 2007, pp. 33-39

On Defining Marketing: Finding a New Roadmap for Marketing. Marketing Theory, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2006, pp. 395-417

Adopting a Service Logic for Marketing. Marketing Theory, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2006, pp. 317-333

Marketing otnoshenij: Diapazon strategij (Relationship marketing: strategic range). In Russian. Marketing Uslug (Service marketing), No. 4 (08), 2006, pp. 262-267

Conceptualising Communication Strategy from a Relational Perspective (together with Kirsti Lindberg-Repo). Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 33, 2004 , pp. 229-239

The Relationship Marketing Process: Communication, Interaction, Dialogue, Value. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2004, pp. 99-113

Service Productivity: Toward a Conceptualization of the Transformation of Inputs into Economic Results in Services (together with Katri Ojasalo). Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57, No. 4, 2004, pp. 414-423

Tongguo Guke Guanxi Fuwuhua Qinghua Guke Joanzhi Guocheng: Guke Guanxi Shidai DeYingxiao Xin Mingti (Value support of customer relationships: New theses in the age of marketing). In Chinese. Nankai Business Review, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2004, pp. 4-18

Taking a customer focus back into the boardroom: can relationship marketing do it?. Journal of Marketing Theory, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003, pp. 171-173

Who Moved My Value? Customers, not companies, create value (together with Lawrence A. Crosby and Sheree L. Johnson). Marketing Management, Vol. 11, No. 5 (September-October), 2002, pp. 10-11

Contemporary Marketing: A Comparison of Practices in New Zealand, Scandinavia and Thailand (together with Roderick Brodie and Tiina Helenius). The Asian Journal of Marketing. Special Millennium Issue, No. 1, 2001, pp. 72-81

The Perceived Service Quality Concept – A Mistake. Managing Service Quality, Vol. 11, No. 3, 2001, pp. 150-152

Communication, interaction et “valeur-consommateur” dans les services (Communication, interaction and value consumption in services). In French. Market Management, No 4, 2001, pp. 64-69

The NetOffer Model: A Case Example from the Virtual Marketspace (together with Fredrik Heinonen, Kristina Isoniemi and Michael Lindholm). Management Decision, Vol. 38, Vol. 4, 2000, pp. 243-252

Vad som är bra för företaget var också bra för samhället – hur är det idag? (What was good for the firm was also beneficial for society – how is it today?). In Swedish. Ekonomiska Samfundets Tidskrift (The Journal of the Economic Society of Finland), Vol. 53, No. 1, 2000, pp. 89-90

Il marketing dei servizi: consumo e marketing di processo (The marketing of services: comsumption and marketing of processes). In Italian. Problemi di Gestione, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2000, pp. 79-100

Creating a Relationship Dialogue: Communication, Interaction and Value. The Marketing Review, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2000, pp. 5-14

Il marketing dei servizi: consumo e marketing di processo (The marketing of services: comsumption and marketing of processes). In Italian. Problemi di Gestione, Vol. 23, No. 1, 2000, pp. 79-100

Relationship marketing: Interaction, dialogue and value. Revista European de Dirección y Economía de la Empresa, Vol. 9, Núm. 3, 2000, pp. 13-24

Books and Monographs

Legend in Marketing: Christian Gronroos, (Jagdish N. Sheth, series editor), 8 volumes, 1968 pages. SAGE, 2013 (ISBN: 9788132110026)

Hokuougata Saab i sushikou-no-Manejimento: Kyousou-wo-Ikinuke (Service-oriented management in Nordic style: New logic of marketing to survive competition). In Japanese. Tokyo: Minerva Shobo, 2013

Management e markting dei servizi. La gestione del cliente nel mercato dei servizi. In Italien. Torino: isedi, 2009

Marketing gerenciamento e servicos. In Portuguese. 3rd edition. Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier Editora Ltda, 2009

Palvelujen johtaminen ja markkinointi (Service management and marketing). In Finnish. 3rd edition. Espoo: WSOYpro, 2009

Service management och marknadsföring (Service management and marketing). In Swedish. 3rd edition. Malmö, Sweden: Liber, 2008

Fú wù guanli yu yíngxiao. Jiyu guke qunxi guanli celue (Service management and marketing. Customer management in service competition). In Chinese. 3rd edition. Beijing: Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2008

Service Management and Marketing. Customer Management in Service Competition. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Co, 2007

In Search of a New Logic for Marketing. Foundations of Contemporary Theory. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, 2007

Fu wu mei guan li yu xing xiao (Service management and marketing). In Chinese. Taipei: Chuan Wei Book Company, 2005

Marketing. Gerenciamento e Servicios. Traducao da segunda edicao. In Portuguese Elsevier Editora Campus, 2004

Fú wù guanli yu yíngxiao. Jiyu guke qunxi guanli celue (Service management and marketing. Customer relationship management approach). In Chinese. Beijing: Publishing House of Electronics Industry, 2002

Management e marketing de servizi. Un approccio al management dei rapporti con la clientele (Management and marketing of services. A customer management approach). In Italian. Torino: ISEDI, 2002

Service management och marknadsföring – en CRM ansats. In Swedish. Malmö: Liber, 2002

Palveluiden johtaminen ja markkinointi (Service management and marketing). In Finnish. Espoo: WSOY, 2001

Palvelut ja asiakassuhteet. Markkinoinnin polttopisteet (Services and customer relationships in the focus of marketing) (co-edited together with Raija Järvinen). In Finnish. Helsinki: Kauppakaari, 2001

Service Management and Marketing. A Customer Relationship Management Approach. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Co, 2000

Book chapters, conference papers, working papers etc.

Making sense of value and value co-creation in service logic (together with Päivi Voima). Working paper 559. Hanken School of Economics Finland, 2012 

The Hybrid Consumer (together with Hanna Leppänen). Working paper 543. Hanken School of Economics Finland, 2009 

Relationship Marketing as Promise Management. In Maclaran, Pauline, Saren, Michael, Stern, Barbara & Tadajewski, Mark, eds.,  The SAGE Handbook of Marketing Theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2009, pp. 397-412

On Defining Marketing: Finding a New Roadmap for Marketing (published in the Marketing Theory, 6, 4, 2006). In Tajadewski, Mark & Jones, D.G. Brian, eds., History of Marketing Thought, Volume III. Los Angeles, CA: Sage, 2008, pp. 416-437

Extending the Logic: Rethinking Value Creation and Co-creation and its Marketing Implications. Lusch, R., Vargo, S. & Leyton, R., eds., Proceedngs from the Forum on Markets and Marketing: Extending the Service-Dominant Logic. University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2008, pp. 348-375

Adopting a Service Business Logic in Relational Business-to-Business Marketing. Ballantyne, D., aitken, R. & Williams J., eds., Proceedings from Otago Forum 2: The Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing – From Propositions to Practice, Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2008 (25 pages; electronically published)

The Interaction Concept and Its Implications for Value Creation and Marketing in Service Businesses (together with Tore Strandvik). In Anttila, M. & Rajala, A., eds., Fishing with Business Nets – Keeping Thoughts on the Horizon. Helsinki School of Economics, Finland, 2008, pp. 51-64

Defining Service Marketing from a Value Creation and Promise Management Perspective. Wei Fuxieng, ed., Proceedings from the International Research Conference on Service Management, Tianjin Normal University, 2008 (addendum; 33 pages)

The Interaction Concept and Its Implications for Value Creation and Marketing in Service Businesses (together with Tore Strandvik). In Anttila, M. & Rajala, A., eds., Fishing with Business Nets – Keeping Thoughts on the Horizon. Helsinki School of Economics, Finland, 2008, pp. 51-64

The Four Dimensions of Value in Branding: Moving the Customer from Value Proposition to Value Fulfilment (together with Kirsti Lindberg-Repo). In Podnar, K. & Jancic, Z., eds., Corporate and Marketing Communications as a Strategic Resource: Response to Contemporary use, Challenges and Criticism. Proceedings from the 13th International Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications. University of Ljubljana 2008, pp. 363-367

A Dynamic Communication Model: A Tool in Relationship Communication. In Gopalakrishnan, G., ed., Integrated Marketing Communication. Concepts and Cases. Icfai Books, The Icfai University Press, India, 2008, pp. 103-124

Palvelyritykseksi muuntautumisen haasteet ja keinot (Becoming a service business: challenges and means). In Finnish. In Grönroos, C & al., Teollisuuden palveluista palveluliiketoimintaan (From industrial services to service business). Helsinki: Teknologiainfor Teknova, 2007, pp. 28-46

In Search of a New Logic for Marketing: The Multi-Faceted Service Logic. In Tyler, K., Martin, C.L., Harris, L.C., Jing Tan & Benamaraoui, A, eds., Service Science: Trans-disciplinary Approaches and Advances for the 22nd Century – Taxi to the Chang Runway. Proceedings from the 21st Service Workshop, Academy of Marketing and University of Westminster, 15-17 November, 2007, London (addendum)

What Can a Service Logic Offer Marketing Theory?. In Lusch, R.F. & Vargo, S.L., eds., The Service-Dominant Logic of Marketing, Armonk, NY:M.E.Sharpe, 2006, pp.354-364

Towards a Dynamic Communication Model: A Useful Tool in Relationship Communication (together with Åke Finne). Podnar, K. & Jančič, Contemporary Issues in Corporate and Marketing Communications: Towards a Socially Responsible Future, 11th Conference on Corporate and Marketing Communications, University of Ljubljana, 2006, pp. 191-199

Tavaralogiikasta palvelulogiikkaan – liiketoimintaosaamisen keskeinen muutostrendi (From goods logic to service logic – a key trend in management). In Liiketoimintaosaaminen kilpailukykymme keskiössä. (Business knowledge at the centre of our competitive advantage) In Finnish, eds. Lehtonen, U. & Mittilä, T., Jyväskylä: Kauppatieteellinen Yhdistys, 2006, pp. 235-241

Från varulogik till tjänstelogik (From goods logic to service logic). In Corvellec, Hervé & Lindquist, Hans (eds.), Servicemötet – Multidisciplinära öppningar (The service encounter – multi-disciplinary approaches). In Swedish. Liber, Malmö 2005, pp. 227-234

Applying a Service Logic in Marketing. Otago Forum, Conference on the Service-dominated Logic in Marketing, Otago University, New Zealand, November 19-22, 2005

Att kommunicera med kunden – dialog eller bara parallella monologer? (Communikating with customers – dialogue or parallel monologus only?). In Ekman, Bo (ed.), Bank, kund och samhälle i globaliseringens tid. (Bank, customer and society in an era of globalization) In Swedish. Ekerlids Förlag, Stockholm 2003, pp. 91-103

Asiakkaiden odotusten ylittäminen – paveluyrityksen johtaminen (Exceeding customer expectations - managing service firms). In Kilpailuetumme. Tutkimusmatka kehittyvään K-kauppiasyrittäjyyteen (Our competitiv advantage. An expedition into K-retailer entrepreneurship). In Finnish. Helsinki: K-kauppiasliitto, 2003, pp. 122-131

Implementing a CRM Perspective in Marketing: Servicizing the Customer Relationship to Support Customers’ Value Processes. Research report presented at the 2003 AMA Servsig Research Conference, Reims, France, June 12-14, 2003

Marketing Theses in the Age of Customer Relationships: Servicizing the Customer Relationship to Support Customers’ Value Processes. Keynote speech, Forum on Service Management. Tianjin University of Commerce. Tianjin Economic and Technologal Special Development Area, P.R.China, 10-11 October 2002

From a Paradigm Shift to Implementation: Servicizing Customer Relationships. Invited plenary session invitation. Tenth International Colloquium in Relationship Marketing. Universität Kaiserslautern. Kaiserslautern, 1-3 October 2002

Servicising Customer Relationships: Supporting Customer Value Through Customer Relationship Management. Plenary session presentation. Seventh Research Conference on Service Management. IAE/Université Aix-Provence, La Londe les Maures, France 29-31 May 2002

Utveckling av en relationsdialog – en integrerad del av framgångsrik relationsmarknadsföring. (Developing a relationship dialogue – an integral part of successful relationship marketing). In Grönroos, Christian & Järvinen, Raija, toim., Palvelut ja asiakassuhteet. Markkinoinnin polttopisteessä (Services and customer relationships at the centre of marketing). In Finnish. Festbok till Uolevi Lehtinen. Vantaa: Kauppakaari, 2001, pp. 178-191

I Did It My Way. Contribution to Services Marketing Self-Portraits: Introspections, Reflections, and Glimpses from the Experts, edited by Fisk, Raymond P, Grove, Stephen J. & John, Joby. Chicago, IL: American Marketing Association, 2000, pp. 71-108

Service Productivity: Toward a Conceptualisation of the Transformation of Inputs into Customer Value in Services (with Katri Ojasalo). Working paper No. 419. Helsinki/ Helsingfors, Finland: Hanken Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, 2000 (21 p.)

The Marketing of Services. In Blois, Keith, ed., The Oxford Textbook of Marketing, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 500-516

Relationship Marketing: The Nordic School Perspective. In Sheth, Jagdish N. & Parvatiyar, Atul, eds., Handbook of Relationship Marketing, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000, pp. 95-118

Service Reflections: Service Marketing Comes of Age. In Swartz, Teresa A. & Iacobucci, Dawn, eds., Handbook of Services Marketing & Management. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2000, pp. 13-16


Christian Grönroos
Professor Emeritus
Mail address
Hanken, P.O.Box 479, FIN-00101 Helsinki, Finland
E-mail (no umlaut)
Christian Grönroos